Solutio Naphthyzini 0.05% et 0.1%

International nonproprietary name

Naphazolinum.

Pharmatherapeutic Group

Drugs for nose treatment; decongentants for local administration. Sympathomimetic agents.

Formulation

1 ml of solution contains 0.5 mg or 1 mg of naphthizin, 20 mg of boric acid.

Pharmacological Action

Pharmacodynamics

The drug has vasoconstrictive effect. It stimulates alpha1 and alpha2- adrenergic receptors. It causes vasoconstriction, increases blood  pressure. It has an anti-inflammatory (decongestant) properties. Vasoconstrictive effect is evident at local application on nasal mucous membrane (it appears within several minutes and continues within several hours).

At rhinitis it eases nasal breathing, so lowering blood flow to venous sinuses.

Pharmacokinetics

At local administration entry of naphazolinum to system bloodstream is possible.

Therapeutic Indications

Naphthizin is used at acute rhinitis, for relief of rhinoscopy (in combination with local anesthetic agents), at inflammation of maxillary sinuses, pollinosis, sinusitis, laryngitis, nasal hemorrhage.

Direction for Use and Dosage Schedule

The drug is intended for intranasal introduction.

At rhinitis it is applied by dropping to every nasal meatus: for adults – 1-2 drops of 0.05%-0.1% solution of Naphthizin 2-3 times a day.

Children in the age over 1 year are instilled 1-2 drops of 0.05% solution or even more diluted with distilled water.

At nasal hemorrhage tampons wetted with 0.05% solution of Naphthizin are inserted into nasal cavity.

At rhinoscopy for prolongation of surface anesthesia 2-4 drops of 0.1% solution are used mixed with 1 ml of anesthetic.

Special Indications

At long-term treatment the effect of drug is progressively reduced (tolerance), that’s why after 5-7 days of treatment it is required to make an interval for several days. On termination of treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors it is allowed to use Naphthizin no sooner than after 10 days.

Adverse Reaction

At using Naphthizin reactive hyperemia, burning sensation or xeromycteria and dry throat are possible. At long-term treatment may be seen swelling of mucous tunic, nausea, headache, high arterial pressure, tachycardia.

Contraindications

Using Naphthizin is contraindicated at individual hypersensitization to the preparation,

angle-closure glaucoma, hypertension, tachycardia, severe forms of hypertension, symptomatic atherosclerosis, pancreatic diabetes, chronic rhinitis, hyperthyroidism, as well as for infants.

Interaction with other drugs

The preparation prolongates the effect of local anesthetic agents. Tricyclic antidepressants, maprotiline enhance the action of Naphthizin.

OverDose

Symptoms: drop of body  temperature

Treatment: symptomatic.

Form of  Production

0.05% or 0.1% solution (nasal drops). 1ml in tube-droppers; 5 or 10 ml in vials. 2, 5 10 tube-droppers in a pack or 2 tube-droppers in contour cellular packs.

Neohaemodesum (solution for infusions)

Pharmacotherapeutic Group

Detoxicants. Rehydratants. Antidotes.

Farmacoceutical Formulation

1 litre of solution contains 60 g of medical low-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone (relative molecular weight 8000 ±2000), 5.5 g of sodium chloride, 0.42 g of potassium chloride, 0.5 g of calcium chloride, 0.005 g of magnesium chloride and 0.23 g of  sodium hydrogen carbonate.

Pharmacological Action

Pharmacodynamics

Neohaemodesum  possesses disintoxication properties stipulated by the ability of polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind circulating in blood toxicants and of fast-excreting them from organism. Due to elevation of glomerular filtration and increase of renal blood flow the drug increases diuresis.

Pharmacokinetics

Up to 80% of neohaemodesum is excreted with urine during 4 hours (partially eliminated through bowels). High-molecular fractions of drug are detained by cells of macrophage system.

Therapeutic Indications

Neohaemodesum is used as a desintoxifying drug by life-saving indication at toxic forms of acute gastroenteric  diseases such as salmonellosis, dysentery, etc., including children;   intoxication of different ethiology (cancerous, radiation, postoperative and other kinds of intoxication), burn  disease, peritonitis, septic states, etc., toxicosis of pregnancy and other pathologic processes accompanied by intoxication;  hemolytic diseases of infants and intrauterine infection and toxemia of infants ( at severe forms of hemolytic disease neohaemodesum injections are made as an additive to replacement transfusion: at media and light forms they may be performed spontaneously); at peritonitis and bowel obstruction as a preoperative preparation just prior to surgery and as disintoxication means during postsurgical period; at acute renal insufficiency of any ethiology, renal edemas caused by chronic diseases of kidneys; thyrotoxicosis; various hepatic diseases: hepatitis, hepato-cholecystitis, acute and subacute hepatic degeneration, hepatic coma.

Direction for Use and Dosage Schedule

Neohaemodesum is introduced intravenously drop-by-drop with a rate of 20-40 drops per minute.

Adults are introduced by single dosing of up to 300-400 ml (sometimes up to 500 ml) of the preparation.

Children are introduced by single dosing as follows: at infancy drug is introduced in dosage of 5 to 10 ml per kilogram of body weight (maximum volume is 70 ml), from 2 5o 5 years – 100 ml, from 5 to 10 years – 150 ml, from 10 to 15 years – 200 ml.

Refresher infusions of neohaemodesum are made not earlier than in 10-12 hours after the termination of the previous infusion.

Number of intravenous drip-feeds and total quantity of introduced solution depend on the character and clinical course of pathologic process. At acute gastroenteric diseases and intoxications usually 1-2 injections will be enough. At burn disease on the stage of intoxication

( from the 1st to the 5th day of disease)and on the stage of intoxication of acute radiation sickness 1-2 injections should be introduced, at hemolytic disease and toxemia of newborn infants – from 2 to 8 injections (every day or two times a day).

Infusions of preparation, especially at poor patients’condition, require the control of a doctor.

Adverse reaction

Lowering of pressure at some patients is possible when using the preparation. In such a case it is necessary to stop infusion, to make subcutaneous introduction of ephedrine and cardiac drugs and intravenously - calcium chloride, in case of need -  polyglukin or  hypertensive drugs.

Contraindications

The drug is contraindicated at apparent cardiopulmonary decompensation, cerebral hemorrhage, heavy allergic responses.

Precautions

In case of using the drug at sepsis injections are made under the strict control of patient’s state due to possible lowering of blood pressure.

It is preferable to introduce neohaemodesum for adults with single dose of 100-200 ml, and provided multiple-dose introduction cumulative dose should not exceed 1 litre of solution

( maximum 60 g of active drug substance with relative molecular weight of 8000 ± 2000).

Interaction with other drugs

Neohaemodesum may be used in combination with other detoxicating and  plasma-substituting agents, most often with polyglukin, salines, albumin, erythrocytic mass as well as in the combination with osmotic diuretic (mannitol).

Form of  Production

Solution for infusions in bottles of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ml.