Acyclovir (tablets 0,2 g)

Tabulettae Acycloviri 0,2

 

International nonproprietary name

Acyclovir.

Acyclovir.

Pharmacotherapeutic group

Antiviral (antiherpetic) agent.

Composition of the preparation

1 tablet contains 200 mg of Acyclovir.

Pharmacological action

Pharmacodynamics

Acyclovir shows activity in relation to herpes simplex virus (Herpes simplex) 1 and 2 types, shingles virus (Varicella zoster), and also Epstein-Barra virus. Cytomegalovirus is less sensitive to acyclovir action. The molecular and biological mechanism of acyclovir antiviral activity is due to competitive interaction with virusthymidine kinase and step-by-step phosphorylation with formation of mono-, di- and triphosphate. Acyclovir triphosphate is built in instead of deoxyguanosine in virus DNA, inhibits DNA-polymerase of the last and suppresses replication process. At herpes acyclovir  prevents the formation of new elements of an eruption, reduces probability of dermal dissemination and visceral complications, accelerates formation of crusts. Promotes pain relief in an acute phase of shingles.

Pharmakokinetics

About 20 % of  Acyclovir is absorbed at intake, irrespective of food intake. Binding with plasma proteins is rather insignificant (9-33 %). Concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is approximately 50 % of concentration in plasma. The maximal concentration is determined after 1,5-2 h. The period of Acyclovir  half-elimination is about 4 hours. It is eliminated mainly by kidneys in unchanged form, partially (10-15 %) in the form of metabolite - 9- carboxymethoxymethylguanin. The period of half-elimination is considerably increased (up to 19,5 h) at renal failure. Acyclovir passes through hematoencephalic and placental barriers, extracted with breast milk.

Indications 

Tablets of acyclovir 0,2 g are indicated at primary and relapsing infections of skin and mucosa caused by virus of herpes simplex of 1 or 2 types (including genital and rectal herpes); for prophylaxis of the infections of skin and mucosa caused by virus of herpes simplex of 1 or 2 types in patients with immune system disorders; for treatment of the infections caused by viruses of shingles and chicken pox.

Dosage and method of administration

Preparation is taken per orally, washing down with a plenty of water.

For treatment of infections of skin and mucosa caused by viruses of herpes simplex should be administrated per 1 tablet (0,2  g), 5 times a day (except for night).

For prophylaxis of infections of skin and mucosa caused by viruses of herpes simplex in patients with immune system disorders should be administrated to the adults per 1 tablet (0,2 g) 4 times a day.

For treatment of the infections caused by shingles viruses should be administrated per 4 tablets (0,8 g) 4-5 times a day.

At rectal herpetic infections should be administrated per 2 tablets (0,4 g) 5 times a day for 10 days.

At genital herpes should be administrated per 1 tablet (0,2 g) 5 times a day; for prophylaxis of genital herpetic infections relapses; 2-5 times a day for 5 days.

To the children in the age under two years should be administrated  per half of dose for adults; to children  elder than 2 years a dose for adults should be administrated.

Duration of course of treatment is usually 5 days. At the infections caused by shingles viruses the treatment should be continued for 3 days after disappearance of disease signs.

Preventive treatment at transplantation of organs is carried out for 6 weeks.

Application of the preparation for newborns is not recommended.

Special indications

Treatment is recommended to start at the very first signs of disease.

Side effects

Headache, undue fatiguability, neurological disorders, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increase of contents bilirubin, urea and creatinine in blood serum, transitional increase of hepatic transaminases activity are possible at the preparation intake. Dermal allergic reactions, fever, edemas, are possible.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to Acyclovir. Restrictions to the preparation intake: pregnancy and lactation (for the period of treatment breast feeding should be stopped).

Safety measures

The intake of a plenty is recommended during treatment for the prevention of crystallization in tubular apparatus.

Interactions with other medicinal preparations

Probenecid decrease Acyclovir elimination(blocks tubular secretion).

Overdosage

Signs: headache, neurological disorders, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, renal failure, lethargy, convulsions, coma.

Treatment: maintenance of the vital functions, hemodialysis.

The form of release

200 mg tablets. 25, 50 tablets in vials, 10 tablets in uncelled blister, 10 tablets in a blister.

 

Bactolact (5 doses)

Bactolactum

 

Pharmacotherapeutic group

The preparations of biological origin regulating of equilibrium of intestinal microflora. The preparations containing microorganisms, producing lactic acid.

Composition of the preparation

Frozen-dried culture of lactic bacteria living cells of 95/25 strain Lactobacillus acidophilus. 1 vial contains 5 doses. The dry powder contains not less than 108living cells of lactobacilli in one dose.

Pharmacological action

Bactolact is referred to a group of eubiotics - the biogenic preparations representing frozen-dried mass of alive microorganisms, usually living in man intestine. They are administrated at intestinal dysfunctions for prophylaxis and treatment of dysbacteriosis resulting from predominant multiplication of pathogenic microflora against the background of immunity suppression and weakening of protection nonspecific factors of macroorganism. The most frequent reason of dysbacteriosis is long application of antibiotics of wide spectrum action, suppressing development of intestine normal microflora and glucocorticosteroids, and also influence of the ionizing radiation, disturbing immunobiological reactivity of an organism. The aim of eubiotics administration at dysbacteriosis is that frozen-dried bacteria revive at coming to an intestine, quickly reproduce and create in it normal biocenosis by competitive suppression of pathogenic microflora growth. Bactolact medicinal preparation possesses high antagonistic activity in relation to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora of an intestine (to staphylococcuses, pseudomonads, clebsiellas, salmonellas, shigella, proteus, to enteropathogenic E. coli) and restores the disturbed biocenosis of gastrointestinaltract. It is shown, that it also possesses ability to activate production of interferon and to normalize nonspecific resistance of an organism.

Indications 

Bactolact is indicated for adults and children, including newborn and prematurely born. It is used for treatment of patients with dysbacteriosis, at chronic enteritises and colitises, and also in the patients who have suffered from acute intestinal infections. Bactolact is administrated also for treatment of patients with long-term intestinal dysfunctions of unstated etiology.

For prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis the preparation should be administrated after long-term antibiotic-, chemo- and radio- therapy.

Unlike many eubiotics Bactolact is possible to administrate for patients on a background of continued antibioticotherapia.

The preparation is effective as a preventive agent at early infants transfer to artificial feeding or donor milk feeding.

 

Dosage and method of administration

Bactolact is intended for per orally application.

Before application the vials should be opened and their content should be dissolved in boiled water of a room temperature at concentration of 1 table spoon of water per one vial. The preparation is dissolved in 5 minutes with formation of cream homogeneous suspension with a sour-milk smell. Then contents should be transferred to a glass with water (milk), mixed and drunk.

Bactolact is necessary to apply in 30 minutes before meal or betweenfood intakes and it is desirable totake milk after it.

It is recommended for adults per 5-10 doses of the preparation 3 times a day. At administration less than 15 Bactolact doses in a day the efficiency of treatment considerably decreases.

1-2 Bactolact doses 3 times a day is administrated to newborns.

To children of the first half-year of life the preparation is administrated per 3 doses 3 times a day.

To children of the second half-year of life - per 5 doses 3 times a day.

To children elder than one year - per 5-10 doses 3 times a day.

Duration of the preparation course of treatment is from 10 days to 1,5 months.

Side effects

At Bactolact application side effects are not determined.

Contraindications

Contraindications to Bactolact application are not established.

Interactions with other medicinal preparations

Bactolact is possible to apply together with other medicinal preparations.

At Bactolact treatment it is necessary to avoid the use of food with phytoncyde activity (garlic, onion). The used 95/25 strain-producer is resistant to action of antimicrobial preparations (oxacillin, chloramfenicol); poorly sensitive to ceclor, norfloxacin, polymyxin.

Overdosage

There no information about cases of the preparation overdosage.

The form of release

Per 5 doses in vials. A vial with the instruction on application is placed in a pack.

Packing for hospitals:40 vials with corresponding instructions on application in group box.